Yeasts represent a kind of eukaryotic micro-organisms that are classified in the kingdom of Fungi. Today there are about 1500 yeasts species officially described in biology, although this quantity is assumed to be only 1% of all the fungal species present at our planet. Yeasts mostly reproduce by mitosis, asexually, while many others do it through budding, which is asymmetric division process. This kind of microorganisms is unicellular, although some of them can become multicellular after formation of a string of connected budding cells. The size of yeasts varies in accordance with their species, but usually they are 3-4 µm in diameter.
Fermentation is an important process that implies making carbon dioxide and alcohols from yeasts. It was discovered that people have been using fermentation in the field of baking for hundreds of years already. Archaeologists have found baking chambers and grinding stones for production of yeasted bread when digging in Egyptian ruins. Furthermore, they saw drawings of ancient bakeries and breweries that dated back 4000 years ago.
Yeasts fermentation is used for making of…